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Warren Bennis famously wrote in his book On Becoming a Leader that a manager does things right and leaders do the right thing.Bennis (1985). Like other leadership scholars, Bennis makes a clear distinction between leadershipThe act of delivering results in the short term while building change capacity for the long term. and management and between managersIndividuals who conduct business and direct a team through activities that focus on controlling, planning, coordinating, and organizing. and leadersIndividuals who guide or direct a group or an organization through activities that focus on innovation, vision, motivation, trust, and change.. A manager’s behavior and activities focus on controlling, planning, coordinating, and organizing. This differs from a leader, whose behaviors and tasks focus on innovation, vision, motivation, trust, and change.Bennis (1985).
Table 1.1 Difference Between Management and Leadership.
|Cope with complexity by…||Cope with change by…|
|planning for goals||setting direction|
|budgeting for goals||developing a future|
|establishing agendas and tasks||having a strategic vision for change|
|organizing roles and responsibilities||aligning of people|
|structuring staff and jobs||communicating direction|
|delegating people||creating coalitions|
|monitoring and implementing results||being commitment focused|
|identifying deviations||motivating and inspiring|
|planning and organizing to solve problems||leveraging human value and potential|
Note. Adapted from Kotter, What Leaders Really Do (1999). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review.
Cultural intelligenceA tool that businesses can use to help leaders work though intercultural dilemmas and create understanding across and between cultures. requires leadership, not management. It calls for what Ronald HeifetzTaylor (1999). defines as courageous leadership, that is, the courage to see reality and help others see their realities: the realities of who they are, how they behave, what talents and skill sets they have or are missing in this global world, and what opportunities should be capitalized upon and seized. Leaders must be able to see and anticipate what skill sets are needed in the future, not just develop their employees’ skills for the moment.Goldsmith (2006).
Culturally intelligent leaders must create an environment where diversityAn instance of being composed of distinct and unlike elements or qualities, such as interests, people, ideas, perspectives, ability, and regions that can be visible or invisible. and cultureThe shared beliefs, values, and assumptions of a group of people who learn from one another and teach others that their attitudes, behaviors, and perspectives are the correct ways to think, act, and feel. flourish, and where conflicting values can be safely expressed and explored through dialogue. Barry Salzberg, CEO of Deloitte, says that organizations and leaders must ask themselves the hard questions: Does our corporate culture really accept the differences it invites, and do we really embrace the different perspectives that come from increasing our commitment to recruiting?Salzberg (2008), p. 123. This type of perspective demands leaders who work toward transformation, or what Couto calls citizen leaders, “transforming leaders who engage others in efforts to reach higher levels of human awareness and relationships.”Couto (1995).